Any source of information that is measureable, in that it can be obtained in the form of works, images, sound, numbers, or other forms that allows for the collecting and keeping of records.
The systematic collection of information about activities, characteristics and outcomes of programs, policies, or other initiatives to make judgements about the intervention, improve effectiveness and/or inform decisions about future planning.
Formative evaluation include the pre-planning activities that should be thought about at the initial implementation stage.
Used to identify the problem, necessary inputs and resources needed to support the program as well as core activities and the resulting short, intermediate and long-term outputs and outcomes.
Used to identify the initiative and risk factors through gathering locally relevant data, understanding public interpretation of the initiative, and assessing public and political will.5
Outcome evaluation focuses on measuring how well the prevention strategy met its intended results. Initial, intermediate, and long-term outcomes of a prevention strategy can be examined to inform whether the overall goals of the program have been met.
A roadmap for others to replicate the intervention and implementation supports.
Process evaluation focuses on the intensity of what is being delivered (e.g., number of people participating in training sessions) and how participants are responding to the intervention components (e.g., levels of satisfaction with training sessions.3
Numerical (statistical) data collection and analysis methods.
In-depth open-ended data collection and analysis methods.
Addresses the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of a program.
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- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention provide a number of resources that can help shape the logic model development process: http://www.cdc.gov/eval/resources/#logicmodels
- National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. (2013). Evidence-informed public health. Retrieved from: http://www.nccmt.ca/eiph-eng.html
- Dehar M-A., Casswell S., Duignan P. (1993). Formative and process evaluation of health promotion and disease prevention programs. Evaluation Review. 17:204-220.
- Blase K., Kiser L., Van Dyke M. (2013). The Hexagon Tool: Exploring Context. Chapel Hill, NC: National Implementation Research Network, FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
- Basu R. (2004). Implementing quality – A practical guide to tools and techniques. Thomson Learning. London.
- Carroll C., Patterson M., Wood S., Booth A., Rick J., Balain S. (2007). A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity. Implementation Science. 2:40. American Evaluation Association.
- Dehar MA, Casswell S, Duignan P. (1993). Formative and process evaluation of health promotion and disease prevention programs. Evaluation Review. 17:204-220.
- Bhattacharyya O.K , Estey E.A, Zwarenstein M. Methodologies to evaluate the effectiveness of knowledge translation interventions: A primer for researchers and health care managers Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 64 (1), pp. 32-40.
- Canadian Evaluation Society.
- Holden, D.J., Zimmerman, M. 2009. A practical guide to program evaluation planning. Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks.
- Judge, K & Bauld L. Strong theory, flexible methods: evaluating complex community-based initiatives, Critical public health 2001 Vol. 11 Issue 1, p19-38, 20p.
- King JA, Morris LL, Fitz-Gibbon CT. How to Assess Program Implementation. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications; 1987.
- Model, A. S. L., & Model, A. E. S. L. (2002). Enhancing program performance with logic models.
Goldstein, I. L. (1993). Training in organizations: Needs assessment, development, and evaluation . Thomson Brooks/Cole Publishing Co.
- Neuman, L. W. (2002). Social research methods: Qualitative and quantitative approaches.
Balamuralikrishna, R., & Dugger, J. C. (1995). SWOT Analysis--A Management Tool for Initiating New Programs in Vocational Schools. Journal of Vocational and Technical Education, 12(1), 36-41.
- Patton MQ. (1997). Utilization-Focused Evaluation. SAGE Publications.
- Pike I, Richmond SA, Rothman L, Macpherson A (eds.) (2015). Canadian Injury Prevention Resource. Parachute, publisher: Toronto, ON.
- Pawlson, R & Tilley, N. Realistic Evaluation. Sage Publications.1997.
- Ryerson University (2014). Program Evaluation Module. Accessed from: http://www.ryerson.ca/content/dam/openlearning/WordDoc/ProgramEval/ProgramEvaluationModule1.doc
- Shadish WR, Cook TD, Leviton LC. Foundations of Program Evaluation: Theories of Practice. Newbury Park: Sage Publications; 1991.
- Taylor, M. J., McNicholas, C., Nicolay, C., Darzi, A., Bell, D., & Reed, J. E. (2014). Systematic review of the application of the plan–do–study–act method to improve quality in healthcare. BMJ quality & safety, 23(4), 290-298.
- University of Wisconsin – Extension. Logic Model. Program Development and Evaluation.
- W.K. Kellogg Foundation. Evaluation Handbook.
- Government of Canada
- Quality Improvement & Innovation Partnership – Logic Model
- "Michigan Municipal League CEO Dan Gilmar" (CC BY-ND 2.0) by Michigan Municipal League (MML)
- "UFV - Student Research Day" (CC BY 2.0) by University of the Fraser Valley
- "Layers Team" (CC BY 2.0) by Jen SFO-BCN