Adaptation of an evidence-based intervention or program is the process of adapting it to improve fit and community (or target population) acceptance. This can include the perceived or documented need to attend to cultural or linguistic appropriateness or community values, and/or resource or contextual constraints that result in decisions to adapt the program or practices2.
Implementation fidelity is the degree to which an intervention, program or policy is delivered as intended1.
Formative indicators include the pre-project planning activities that should be thought about at the initial implementation stage4.
Outcome indicators focus on measuring how well the prevention strategy met its intended results. Initial, intermediate, and long-term outcomes of a prevention strategy can be examined to inform whether the overall goals of the program have been met6.
Process indicators focus on tracking the intensity of what is being delivered (e.g., number of people participating in training sessions) and how participants are responding to the intervention components (e.g., levels of satisfaction with training sessions)5.
Sustainability is defined as the “degree to which an innovation continues to be used after initial efforts to secure adoption are completed”3.
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- Action Plan Worksheet
- Dixon-Woods M., McNicol S., & Martin G. (2012). Ten challengers in improving quality in healthcare: Lessons from the Health Foundation’s programme evaluations and relevant literature. BMJ Quality & Safety, 21(10), 876-884.
- National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools http://www.nccmt.ca/
- National Implementation Research Network http://nirn.fpg.unc.edu/
- Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature http://nirn.fpg.unc.edu/resources/implementation-research-synthesis-literature
- Knowledge Transfer & Implementation of Evidence-Based Practice in Children’s Mental Health http://nirn.fpg.unc.edu/resources/knowledge-transfer-implementation-evidence-based-practice- childrens-mental-health
- Public Health Ontario – Online Health Program Planner http://www.publichealthontario.ca/en/ServicesAndTools/ohpp/Pages/default.aspx
- Fixsen, D., Blasé, K., Metz, A., Dyke van, & M. (2014). Implementation Science and Fall Prevention. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://watchyourstepcanada.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/Dean-Fixsen.pdf
- Kreindler, S. (2014). What if implementation is not the problem? Exploring the missing links between knowledge and action. [PowerPoint slides]. Retrieved from http://chimb.ca/events/55.
- Stages of Implementation Analysis: Where are we? Stage Implementation & Scaling-Up of Evidence-based Practices, National Implementation Research Network. Retrieved from http://implementation.fpg.unc.edu/sites/implementation.fpg.unc.edu/files/resources/NIRN-Education-StagesOfImplementationAnalysisWhereAreWe.pdf
- Dehar M-A. Casswell S, Duignan P. (1993). Formative and process evaluation of health promotion and disease prevention programs. Evaluation Review. 17:204-220.
- Blase K, Kiser L, Van Dyke M. (2013). The Hexagon Tool: Exploring Context. Chapel Hill, NC: National Implementation Research Network, FPG Child Development Institute, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.
- Shea, M. P. (2007). How to create an internal evaluation plan using a program logic model. Available online at http://www.oninjuryresources.ca/downloads/eval/03.logicmodel.pdf
- State Implementation and Scaling-up of Evidence-based Practices Center (SISEP) and the National Implementation Research Network (NIRN) at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill's FPG Child Development Institute.
- Dusenbury, L. (2003). A review of research on fidelity of implementation: implications for drug abuse prevention in school settings. Health Education Research, 18, 237-256. doi:10.1093/her/18.2.237.
- Glasgow, R.E., Lichtenstein, E., Marcus, A.C. (2003). Why Don’t We See More Translation of Health Promotion Research to Practice? Rethinking the Efficacy-to-Effectiveness Transition. American Journal of Public Health, 93, 1261-1267. doi:10.2105/AJPH.93.8.1261.
- Rychetnik,L.,Frommer,M.S.,Hawe,P.,Shiell,A.(2002).Criteria for evaluating evidence on public health interventions. Journal of Epidemiological and Community Health, 56, 119-127. doi:10.1136/jech.56.2.119.
- Carroll,C.,Patterson,M.,Wood,S.,Booth,A.,Rick,J.,Balain,S.(2007).A conceptual framework for implementation fidelity. Implementation Science, 2(40). doi:10.1186/1748-5908-2-40.
- Castro,F.G.,Barrera,M.,Holleran Steiker,L.K.(2010).Issues and challenges in the design of culturally adapted evidence-based interventions. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 6, 213-239. doi:10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-033109-132032.
- Lee,S.J.,Altschul,I.,Mowbray,C.T.(2008).Using planned adaptation to implement evidence-based programs with new populations. American Journal of Community Psychology, 41, 290-303. doi: 1007/s10464-008-9160-5.
- McKleroy,V.S.,Galbraith,J.S.,Cummings,B.,Jones,P.,Harshbarger,C.,Collins,C.,Gelaude,D.et.al. (2006). Adapting evidence-based behavioral interventions for new settings and target populations. AIDS Education and Prevention, 18, 59-73. doi:10.1521/aeap.2006.18.supp.59.
- Fixsen, D.L., Naoom, S.F., Blase, K.A., Friedman, R.M., Wallace, F. (2005). Implementation Research: A Synthesis of the Literature. 1-119. Retreived from http://nirn.fpg.unc.edu/sites/nirn.fpg.unc.edu/files/resources/NIRN-MonographFull-01-2005.pdf.
- WiltseyStirman,S.,Kimberly,J.,Cook,N.,Calloway,A.,Castro,F.,Charns,M.(2012).The sustainability of new programs and innovations: a review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future research. Implementation Science, 7(17). doi:10.1186/1748-5908-7-17.
- Fixsen,D.,Blasé,K.,Noom,S.,Dykevan,M.,Wallace,F.(2007).Effective use of evidence-based programs in education. National Implementation Research Network. University of South Florida. [Conference slides]. Retrieved from http://www.nationaltechcenter.org/documents/conf07/presentations/implementation_fixsen.pdf
- Christoffel,T.,&Gallager,S.S.(2006).Injury Prevention and Public Health:PracticalKnowledge,Skills, and Strategies (Sudbury, MA).