Social Determinants of Injury module
Determinants of Injury
Determinants describe factors that control or influence an outcome. A determinant can place an individual or community at greater, or lesser risk for injury. While injuries are often attributed to the behaviours of individuals, they are actually the result of the interaction between individual, community, structural, and societal factors.
A model that describes the relationship between the social environment and injuries.
A playground comprised of a kit of play equipment, fence, and a carpet (usually rubber surfacing).
Long Term Care ( LTC)
Facilities that provide 24-hour professional supervision and care for individuals who have complex care needs and can no longer be cared for in their own homes or in an assisted living residence.
An attribute, characteristic or exposure that decreases the likelihood of injury.
Public Health Approach
The public health approach includes five functional steps: surveillance, research on risk and protective factors, research on interventions, program and policy implementation, and evaluation and monitoring. All of the steps of the public health approach are necessary in order to successfully prevent injuries over time.
The resilience of the individual is also an important factor to consider when thinking about risk and protective factors for individuals. Some families and communities seem to demonstrate a resiliency to injury, regardless of the existence of factors that increase their risk for injury. For example, an individual or community that reports low socioeconomic status may not be at higher risk for injury. Strong social supports despite low incomes, or few jobs in this case, may be protective factors.
An attribute, characteristic, or exposure that increases the likelihood of injury
A complex social construct and there is controversy over its definition and nature.
Social networks are characterized by relationships and interactions within a community or an organization. Most people integrate into society through their social networks and this social integration is beneficial for their health.
Income and social status, or socioeconomic status (SES for short) is a person’s positioning within social or economic hierarchies in society.
The Social Determinants of Injury
The social determinants of injury are the economic and social conditions that influence injury risk in individuals and populations.
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- Pike I, Richmond S, Rothman L, Macpherson A (eds.) (2015). Canadian Injury Prevention Resource. Parachute, publisher: Toronto, ON.
- World Health Organization. (2009). Addressing the socioeconomic safety divide: A policy briefing. Retrieved from http://www.euro.who.int/en/publications/abstracts/addressing-the-socioeconomic-safety-divide-a-policy-briefing
- Public Health Agency of Canada (2011). What Determines Health? Retrieved from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/ph-sp/determinants/index.eng.php#key_determinants
- Brownell, M.D., Derksen, S.A., Jutte, D.P., Roos, N.P., Ekuma, O., Yallop, L. (2010). Socio-economic inequities in children's injury rates: has the gradient changed over time? Canadian Journal of Public Health;101(3):S28-31.
- Jackson, A. (2009). “The unhealthy Canadian workplace.” In Raphael, D. (ed.) Social Determinants of Health, 2nd edition. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press Inc
- Elgar, F.J., Trites, S.J., Boyce, W. (2010). Social Capital Reduces Socio-economic Differences in Child Health: Evidence From the Canadian Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children Study. Canadian Journal of Public Health; 101, (SUPP 3): s23-s27.
- Hameed S.M., Schuurman N., Razek T., Boone D., Van Heest R., Taulu T., et al. (2010). Access to trauma systems in Canada. J Trauma;69(6):1350–61; discussion 1361.
- All references as in pg. 329 of Canadian Injury Prevention Resource
- Parachute. (n.d.). Child Injury Prevention. Retrieved from http://parachutecanada.org/child-injury-prevention.